In his Bunker Archeology (), Paul Virilio establishes an inventory of bunker typologies and tries to determine what the essence of those militaries. BUNKER ARCHEOLOGY atmosphere approaching the great reflector was totally new; the transpar- ency I was so sensitive to was greater as the ocean got. Out of print for almost a decade, we are thrilled to bring back one of our most requested hard-to-find titlesphilosopher and cultural theorist Paul Virilio’s Bunker .
These concrete shelrers ceaselessly proliferated and got thicker, an almost botanical sign ol a constantly increasing pressure, of a constantly more “rigorous” climate. Check out our blog and visit us on FacebookTwitterand Instagram — use papress. Archer rated it it was amazing Mar 18, However, fated with the positive reception of the critics, a warning is necessary: Iconoclasm, iconoclasm and fear.
When we show interest in ancient armor, the ornaments and figures Indicate clearly the origin and the style —Italian, French, etc. At the end of the First World War, the new assault tanks wereailed “land battleships”; their form evoked fairly well a ship’s hull.
July l l War Directive 3 J, devoted mainly to the eastern front, nevertheless plans lor the first time a defense organization of the western coasts, in particular those of Norway and the Channel Islands.
Virilio discusses fortresses and military space in general and the bunkers themselves, including facsimiles of original military maps and extracts from Hitler’s “Directives of War. Many of them had been destroyed by this iconoclastic vengeance when the territory had been liberated; their basements had been filled with munitions gathered bunier along the way and the explosion of the solidrete mass had overjoyed the countryside’s inhabitants, as in a summary ition. No longer able ro pretend to be developing their superiority by increas- ing the power of their arms sysrems, the heads of arsenals are engaged, vkrilio in the multiplication of warheads for each missile, in the first proce- dure of curtailment of the destructive effects of explosive pay loads.
From one end of Europe to the other a new syneciics saw the light. The time and place of the landing operations will not be dic- tated to the enemy by operational considerations alone.
But there is more. What was the nature of the modernness in these historical ruins? Espionage became a mass phenomenon. War is at once prospecrive and rerrospective; fortifications aim not only to conserve power but also to conserve all combat techniques. Thanks to its thrust, the stratospheric rocket could practice reaching the speed of liberation, which would free war of all constraint, plunging human societies into obligatory deterrence, into a balance of shared terror that would soon lead Europe and the rest of the world into the throes ot collective anguish, relative no longer to such and such a population, arhceology endangered region or that, but humanity’s very future.
Full text of “Paul Virilio Bunker Archaeology”
In the meantime, north of Norway all the way to the south of France, he had the Todt Organization construct countless bunkers, symbols of the fra- gility of the Nazi state. Virilio discusses fortresses and military space in general and the bunkers themselves, including facsimiles of original military maps and extracts from Hitler’s “Directives of War. You could walk day after day along the seaside and never once lose sight of these concrete altars built to face the void of the oceanic horizon.
Moreover, General Theo Habicht erected in in the north of France lie prototype of a mobile bunker, the epitome of this frenzied hybridiza- tion, while at the same time German engineers were working in their arse- nals on a mock-up of a giant combat tank, a real colossus rhe size of a The “survival machine” of reinforced concrete — similar in closeness to the submarine, similar in its mass and artillery to the tank, flown over by living fortresses — borrowed many of its elements and its accessories from h W machines.
This marked the disappearance of the battleground and of peripheral combat; the Forrress Europe was three dimensional, the casemates on the beaches complemented the antiaircraft shelters of the cities, the submarine bases were but the counterparts of industry’s subterranean bases. From such a distance there was no way of determining anything like foam movement.
The arrival of nuclear arms was the strategic contribution essential to total war. Oct 16, Nat added it. Thar is why one so often speaks of forts and blockhouses as so many alarms warning rhe hibernator: They displaced force and meaning into the affective space and structure of the bunker instead of draining power from the memory of oppression.
There is no need 32 to look any further for rhe serious difficulties and the crises experienced during the Second World War by classical intelligence services, rhose agents nobody believed even when rhey brought forth extraordinary information. I can therefore no longer take responsibility for further weak- ening the west, in favor of other theaters of war.
Putting the arms in concrete case- mates will hinder their movement and keep them from following enemy hips; they will not be able to back up the land artillery once the adversary has gained a foothold on the beaches. At the end of the Second World War, almost all vehicles tended to resemble means of transport by sea.
Since the arming of the jet, and especially since the arrival of artillery on rlu scene, warfare has not only created a landscape by defensive CO’H- PUCtiortS, by the organization ol fronts and frontiers, but it has also I ittecl successfully with natural forces; firearms, explosives, smoke ns, and gasses have contributed to the creation of an artificial climate, reserved to the battleground or, more precisely, to the moment ol combat.
Trees, pines, etched-out dark spots; the square in front of the station was at once white and void—that particular emptiness you feel in recently abandoned places. Going further back into the rear of the fortification, you meet once again the system of staggered nearby defenses, with its small firing slits—one along the entrance axis, the other on the flanks—with low visibility, through which the immediate surroundings can be seen, in a narrow space with a low ceiling.
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We share the charge of resistance with our forebears and descendants. A Pqul History Berkeley: The Channel Islands form an advanced bastion, off Cotentin.
The use against enemy land- ings of suitable and available antiaircraft guns, under the orders of the commander responsible for local defense, oaul not be affected. Visit our Beautiful Books page and find lovely books for kids, photography lovers and more. Since submarines are vulnerable during retueling on the open sea and at de- parrure on missions, the Germans decide ro construct submarine shelters.
Orders and instructions that run contrary to this direc- tive are cancelled from 1 April This is what happens in every war, what happened in the Second World War with its aerial bombings, that sinister nocturnal enchantment.
This was the end of rhe invisibility of objectives for those fighter pilots who were protected from rhe bujker, removed environment of the objectives but also, for the same reason, handicapped in their aiming.
Nazi architects wanted their soldiers to do, think, and behave in proscribed patterns and planned their bunkers accordingly. This afforded me- a wide margin of maneuver ami I could attack as I saw fit all the German cities with populations of at least Iinhabitants. Indeed, after burying factories and warehouses underground, the railroads, roads, and airports represented the last surface equipment.
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I request that suggestions be made to me regarding the employment of parachute and airborne troops. Inar the beginning of hostilities, Speer succeeded in convincing Hitler to leave responsibiliry for construction and arms in rhe hands of a single person: Preview — Bunker Archaeology by Paul Virilio.
At the age of 25, Paul Virilio stumbled upon these relics with his camera and began a study that would continue for 30 years. These objects had been left behind, and were colorless; their gray cement relief was silent witness to a warlike climate. I reserve the decision to myself. Let us go back now some forty-five years, to that moment in the Pacific when the Second World War came to a close. I find it telling that archeology digs, uncovering revelation through a vertical descent into the earth.
A world of moving panicles — that is the inscription of these concrete steles.