The Center for Generational Kinetics solves tough generational challenges with iGen, Millennials, Gen Y, Gen X and Baby Boomers. 31 mar. Baby Boomers e Gerações X,Y e Z. Consideram-se como Baby Boomers os nascidos entre e , separados em duas gerações. Geração X Nascidos entre e (+/-) Hoje com 40 ou 50 anos. Filhos da geração Baby Boomers formada logo após a 2ª Gerra.
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Generation X or Gen X is the demographic cohort following the baby boomers and preceding the Millennials. There are no precise dates for when Generation X starts or ends. Demographers and researchers typically use birth years ranging from the early-to-mid s to the early s. Generation Xers were children during a time of shifting societal values and as children were sometimes called the ” latchkey generation”, due to reduced adult supervision as children compared to previous generations, a result of increasing divorce rates and increased maternal participation in the workforce, prior to widespread availability of childcare options outside the home.
As adolescents and young adults, they were dubbed the ” MTV Generation ” a reference to the music video channel of the same name. In the s they were sometimes characterized as slackerscynical and disaffected. Some of the cultural influences on Gen X youth were the musical genres of alternative rock and hip hop musicand indie films.
In midlife, research describes them as active, happy, and achieving a work—life balance. The cohort has been credited with entrepreneurial tendencies. The term “Generation X” has been used at various times throughout history to describe alienated youth. In the s, Hungarian photographer Robert Capa used Generation X as the title for a photo-essay about young men and women growing up immediately following World War II.
The term acquired its modern definition after the release of Generation X: While Coupland’s book helped to popularize the phrase he had also attributed it to Billy Idol in a magazine article. Demographer William Strauss observed that Coupland applied the term to older members of the cohort born between andwho were sometimes told by demographers that they were baby boomersbut who did not feel like boomers. Strauss also noted that around the time Coupland’s novel was published the symbol “X” was prominent in popular culture, as the film Malcolm X was released inand that the name “Generation X” ended up sticking.
The “X” refers to an unknown variable or to a desire not to be defined. Demographer Neil Howe noted the delay in naming this demographic cohort saying, “Over 30 years after their birthday, they didn’t have a name. I think that’s germane.
Generation X is the demographic cohort following the post—World War II baby boomrepresenting a generational change from the baby boomersbut there is debate over this because the end-date of the baby-boomer generation is disputed. Research from MetLifeexamining the boomers, split their cohort into “older boomers”, gero they defined as born between andand “younger boomers”, which they defined as born between and They found much of the cultural identity bbaby the baby-boomer generation is associated with the “older boomers”, while half of the “younger boomers” were averse to being associated with the baby-boomer cohort and a third of those born between and actively identified as members of Generation X.
Demographers William Strauss and Neil Howe terao the frequently used end-date of the baby-boomer cohort which results in a start-yearsaying that a majority of those born between and do not self-identify as boomers, and that they are culturally distinct from boomers in terms of shared historical experiences. Howe says that while many demographers use as a start date for Generation X, this is a statement yy fertility in the population birth-rates which began declining indeclined more sharply following and fails to take into consideration the shared history and cultural identity of the individuals.
Strauss and Howe define Generation X as those born between and Many researchers and demographers continue to use dates which correspond to the strict fertility-patterns in the population, which results in a Generation X starting-date ofsuch as Pew Research Center which uses a range of —,  MetLife which uses —,  Australia’s McCrindle Research Center which uses —,  and Gallup which also uses — Author Jeff Gordinierin his book X Saves the Worlddefines Generation J as those born roughly between and but bbay as late as How to Profit from the Coming Gerxo Shift.
Gen Xthe “Gen X tribe” consisted of individuals born between and Other demographers and researchers use a wide range of dates to describe Generation X, with the beginning birth-year ranging from as early as   to as late as and with the final birth year ranging from as early as  to as late as gedao A Census report counted approximately 84 million people living in the U.
Jon Miller at the Longitudinal Study of American Youth at the University of Michigan wrote that “Generation X refers to adults born between and ” and it “includes 84 million people”. At the time it was published they wrote that there are approximately The birth control pillintroduced in the early s, was one contributing factor of declining birth rates seen in the late s and 70s. However, increased immigration partially offset declining birth rates and contributed to boomres Generation X an ethnically and culturally diverse demographic cohort.
Demographers William Strauss and Neil Howewho authored several books on generations, including the book specifically on Generation X 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail? Strauss wrote that society “moved from what Leslie Fiedler called a s-era ‘cult bopmers the child’ to what Landon Jones called a s-era ‘cult of gerqo adult’.
The Gen X childhood coincided with the sexual revolutionwhich Susan Gregory Thomas described in her book In Spite of Everything as confusing and frightening for children in cases where a parent would bring new sexual partners into their home.
Bomoers also discussed how divorce was different during the Gen X childhood, with the child having a limited or severed relationship with one parent following divorce, often the father, due to differing societal and legal expectations.
In the s, only 9 U. S states allowed for joint custody of children, which has since been adopted by all 50 states following a push for joint custody during the mids.
Generations X,Y, Z and the Others – WJSchroer
The time period of the Gen X childhood saw an increase in latchkey childrenleading to the terminology of the “latchkey generation” for Generation X. Latchkey children became common among all socioeconomic demographics, but were particularly common among middle and upper class children.
The higher the educational attainment of the parents, the higher the odds the children of boomer time would be latchkey children, due to increased maternal participation in the workforce at egrao time before childcare options outside the home were widely available. The United Kingdom’s Economic and Social Research Council described Generation X as “Thatcher’s children” because the cohort grew up while Margaret Thatcher was Prime Minister from to”a time of social flux and transformation”.
They were described in a marketing report by Specialty Retail as the kids who “lived the civil rights movement. In the s, Strauss reported Gen Xers were “by any measure the least racist of today’s generations”.
Politically, in the United States, the Gen X childhood coincided with a time when government funding tended to be diverted away from programs for children and often instead directed toward the elderly population, with cuts to Medicaid and programs for children and young families, and protection and expansion of Medicare and Social Gearo for the elderly population.
One in five American children grew up in poverty during this time. These programs for the elderly were not tied to economic need. Congressman David Durenberger criticized this political situation, stating that while programs for poor children and for young families were cut, the government provided “free health care to elderly millionaires”.
Gen Xers came of age or were children during the crack epidemicwhich disproportionately impacted urban areas and also the African-American community in the US. Drug turf battles increased violent crime, and crack addiction impacted communities and families.
Between andthe homicide rate for black males aged 14 to 17 doubled in the US, and the homicide rate for black males aged 18 to 24 increased almost as much. The crack epidemic had a destabilizing impact on families with an increase in the number of children in foster care. Byan estimated one to two million Americans were HIV positive. Gerso the virus spread, at a time before effective treatments were available, a public panic ensued. Sex education programs in schools were adapted to address the AIDS boomerss which taught Gen X c that sex could kill you.
In the s, media pundits and advertisers struggled to define the cohort, typically portraying them as “unfocused twentysomethings”. A MetLife report gedao After the film was released, “journalists and critics thought they put a finger on what was different about these young adults in that ‘they were reluctant to grow up’ and gerzo of earnest action’.
Stereotypes of Gen X young adults also included that they were “bleak, cynical, and disaffected”. Such stereotypes prompted sociological research at Stanford University to yerao the accuracy of the characterization of Gen X young adults as cynical and disaffected. Using the national General Social Surveythe researchers compared answers to identical survey questions asked of boomegs in three different time periods.
Additionally, they compared how older adults answered the same survey questions over time.
The surveys showed 18—year-old Gen Xers did exhibit higher levels of cynicism and disaffection than previous cohorts of 18—year-olds surveyed; however, they also found that cynicism and disaffection had increased among all age groups surveyed over time, not just young adults, making this a period effect, not a cohort effect.
In other words, adults of all ages were more cynical and disaffected in the s, not just Generation X. InTime magazine published an article titled “Living: Proceeding with Caution”, which described those in their 20s as aimless and unfocused; however, inthey published an article titled “Generation X Reconsidered”, which retracted the previously reported negative stereotypes and reported positive accomplishments, citing Gen Xers’ tendency to found technology start-ups and small businesses as well as Gen Xers’ ambition, which research showed was higher among Gen X young adults than older generations.
InThe New York Times dubbed them “Generation “, describing them as the “once pitied but now envied group of self-employed workers whose income is reported to the Internal Revenue Service not on a W-2 formbut on Form “. He reported Gen Xers’ entrepreneurial tendencies helped create the high-tech industry that fueled the s economic recovery. In the US, they were described as the major heroes of the September 11 terrorist attacks by demographer William Strauss.
The firefighters and police responding to the attacks were predominantly Generation Xers. Additionally, the leaders of the passenger revolt on United Airlines Flight 93 were predominantly Gen Xers. Guides regarding managing multiple generations in the workforce describe Gen Xers as: Gordiner cited examples of Gen Xers’ contributions to society such as: GoogleWikipediaAmazon. In the book, Gordinier contrasts Gen Xers to Baby Boomers, saying Boomers tend to trumpet their accomplishments more than Gen Xers do, creating what he describes as “elaborate mythologies” around their achievements.
Gordiner cites Steve Jobs as an example, while Gen Xers, he argues, are more likely to “just quietly do their thing”. Insurvey analysis from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth found Gen Xers to be “balanced, active, and happy” in midlife between ages of 30 and 50 and as achieving a work-life balance.
The study asked questions such as “Thinking about all aspects of your life, how happy are you? If zero means that you are very unhappy and 10 means that you are very happy, please rate your happiness.
Only four percent of Generation X adults indicated a great deal of unhappiness a score of three or lower. Twenty-nine percent of Generation X adults were very happy with a score of 9 or 10 on the scale.
In terms of advocating for their children in the educational setting, demographer Neil Howe describes Gen X parents as distinct from Baby Boomer parents. Howe argues that Gen Xers are not helicopter parentswhich Howe describes as a parenting style of Boomer parents of Millennials.
Howe described Gen Xers instead as “stealth fighter parents”, due to the tendency of Gen X parents to let minor issues go and to not hover over their children in the educational setting, but to intervene forcefully and swiftly in the event of more serious issues. The rankings were based on a three-year moving average between and Gen X was also ranked highest among fellow workers for having the strongest work ethic chosen by Ina global consumer insights project from Viacom International Media Networks and Viacombased on over 12, respondents across 21 countries,  reported on Gen X’s unconventional approach to sex, friendship and family,  their desire for flexibility and fulfillment at work  and the absence of midlife crisis for Gen Xers.
Gen Xers were the first cohort to come of age with MTV.
Generations X,Y, Z and the Others
They were the first generation boomerz experience the emergence of music videos as teenagers and are sometimes called the MTV Generation. As Generation X began to enter adolescence a new generation of rock bands arose such as the RamonesJohnny Thunders and the HeartbreakersRichard Hell and the Voidoids in New York Citythe Sex Pistolsthe Clashthe Damned and, Buzzcocks in the UKand the Saints in Brisbane — by late these acts were generally recognized as forming the vanguard of “punk rock”.
While at first the bands babby not Gen Xers themselves, the fan base for the early bands was increasingly Gen X and it therefore made a significant imprint on the cohort. By the influence of punk rock music and subculture became more pervasive, spreading throughout various countries worldwide.
Minor Threatstreet punk e. Subhumans became the predominant modes of punk rock. Musicians identifying with or inspired by punk often later pursued other musical directions, resulting u a broad range of spinoffs, giving rise to genres vaby as post-punknew wave and later indie popalternative rockand noise rock.
By the s punk rock re-emerged in the mainstream, as punk rock and pop punk bands with Gen X members such as Green DayRancidThe Offspringand Blink brought the genre widespread popularity.