A 3D printable and highly stretchable tough hydrogel is developed by combining poly(ethylene glycol) and sodium alginate, which synergize to. Hydrogels are used as scaffolds for tissue engineering, vehicles for drug delivery, actuators for optics and fluidics, and model extracellular matrices for biological. In this investigation, we successfully prepared extremely stretchable, transparent and tough DN hydrogels by using neutral synthetic polymer–poly(vinyl alcohol).

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Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels

The membrane remained intact, vibrated, and recovered its initial flat configuration after the vibration was damped out. Lamellar bilayers as reversible sacrificial bonds to toghen hydrogel: After the first loading the gel does not recover from the damage; on subsequent loadings the fracture energy is much reduced [ 21 ]. One of the two polymers provides elasticity to the printed material, while stetchable other allows it to dissipate energy under deformation without breaking.

When the gel is stretched, the glassy domains remain intact, while the ionic crosslinks break and dissipate energy. Tough and self-healing hydrogels formed via hydrophobic interactions. From thermally activated to viscosity controlled fracture of biopolymer hydrogels.

Author manuscript; available in PMC May 3. Mohamadreza Nassajian MoghadamDominique P. We loaded a sample of the hybrid gel to a stretch of 7, and then unloaded the gel to zero force.


Highly stretchable and tough hydrogels – Semantic Scholar

Moreover, alginate is finely dispersed in the hybrid gel homogeneously, as demonstrated by using fluorescent alginate and by measuring local elastic modulus with atomic force microscopy Supplementary Fig. However, the critical stretch at rupture reached the maximum when acrylamide was 89 wt. The nominal stress s is defined by the force applied on the deformed gel divided by the cross-sectional area of the undeformed gel.

SternbergWerner WeitschiesAnne Seidlitz Skip to search form Skip to main content. Microcapsules and microcarriers for in situ cell delivery.

J Am Ceram Soc. The diversity of weak and strong molecular integrations makes hybrid gels of various kinds a fertile area of research.

New Process for 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels

Even for samples containing notches, a stretch of 17 is demonstrated. J Mater Sci Mater Med. The amounts of alginate and acrylamide in the hybrid gels were kept the same as those in the alginate gel and polyacrylamide gel, respectively. The gel was glued to two clamps made of polystyrene, resulting in specimens of Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The new biocompatible tough hydrogel can be printed into diverse 3-D structures such as a hollow cube, hemisphere, pyramid, twisted bundle, multilayer stretchzble, or physiologically relevant shapes, such as a human nose or ear.


All mechanical tests were performed in air, at room temperature, using a tensile machine Instron model with a N load cell.

Such resilience is hyddrogels key feature of natural bodily tissues that need to withstand a variety of forces and impacts. The internal damage was much better healed by storing the gel at an elevated temperature for some time before reloading Fig.

New Process for 3D Printing of Highly Stretchable and Tough Hydrogels

Proc R Soc Lond A. Reprints and permissions information is available at www. A similar trend was observed for samples with notches Fig. In many applications, the use of hydrogels is often severely limited by their mechanical properties. Fatigue and fracture of elastomers.

In contrast, the polyacrylamide gel showed negligible hysteresis, and the sample fully recovered its original length after unloading. When a gel made with hydrophobic bilayers in a hydrophilic polymer network hihly stretched, the bilayers dissociate and dissipate energy; upon unloading, the bilayers re-assemble, leading to recovery [ 17 ].

Enhanced proliferation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells on tough hydrogel substrates.